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5th International Conference on Gynecology and Obstetrics Pathology, will be organized around the theme “”

Gynecology and Obstetrics 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Gynecology and Obstetrics 2021

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Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with regulation of women especially during their pregnancy and childbirth. They also mainly focus on diagnosing and providing treatment to the diseases caused in female reproductive system. Other health issues of women where the Gynecologist are trying to help   regarding hormonal problems, infertility, menopause and birth control. A Gynecology doctor is defined as women’s reproductive health specialist, main role is to regulation and care the women after the baby is delivered. They also help the gynecologist at the time of delivery. General Obstetrics and Gynecology provide care to women of all ages and in all phases of life. Physicians provides annual precautionary exams and screenings, contraceptive counseling, pre-conception and obstetric care, management of gynecologic problems and menopause care. Obstetrics Pathology is the study of identification and diseases involve during pregnancy and childbirth, and the postpartum period.



 


  • Track 1-1Pathology of vagina
  • Track 1-2Cervical Pathology
  • Track 1-3Pathology of Uterus
  • Track 1-4Pathology of Fallopian tube
  • Track 1-5Pathology of Ovaries
  • Track 1-6Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer
  • Track 1-7Complications of Previable Pregnancy
  • Track 1-8Pregnancy with abortive outcome
  • Track 1-9Complications of labour
  • Track 1-10Gestational Diseases and the Placenta
  • Track 1-11Disorders Originating in prenatal period

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder in normally among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have rare or delayed menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may grow numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs. PCOS is a problem with hormones that affect women during their childbearing years (age’s between15 to 44). 2.2 and 26.7 percent of women in this age group have PCOS. The reason of PCOS is not known, it appears that PCOS may be associated to many different factors working together. These  factors  includes insulin resistance, enhanced levels of hormones called androgens, and an irregular menstrual cycle.

 

 



Ultrasound is done at the time of pregnancy to track the development of the fetus in the mother’s womb. Ultrasound   gives the details of  the heartbeat of the foetus, the radius of the head, the length of the hands and feet  and also his/her height and weight. There are different kinds of ultrasound which can be done during pregnancy namely Transvaginal Ultrasound, 3-D Ultrasound, 4-D Ultrasound and Fetal Echocardiography. While the Sonography reports in the first trimester gives   information about the fetal heartbeat, it also, examines the placenta, uterus, ovaries, cervix, checks for multiple pregnancies, the sonography done in the second and third trimester reveals much significant criteria like placental abruption, placental previa, and characteristics of Down ’s syndrome if there are any possibilities. The ultrasound in this stage also examines whether the foetus is carrying any form of congenital disease whether hereditary or non-hereditary or not. As most of the pregnancies come un planned passing on of genetic disorders from parents to the baby is very common. 



 


  • Track 3-1Ultrasound
  • Track 3-2looking into the genetic conditions of parents and as a consequence the possibilities in the baby
  • Track 3-3Fetal Anomalies
  • Track 3-4Clinical Utility of foetal echocardiography


Infections in the female genitalia and the accessory sex organs are normally and collectively known as Gynaecologic Infectious Diseases. While some of these diseases can be cured simply by the usage of antibiotics while others need to be paid serious consideration to while curing them. Some of the infectious diseases are  namely vulvo vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory diseases and sexually transmitted diseases. These diseases can also happen during pregnancy and their severity increases with the development of pregnancy in most cases. Infections like Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus infection, Rubella, Toxoplasmosis, Hepatitis or Syphilis, Listeriotic, Bacterial Vaginosis can damage the foetus as well affect labour or choice of delivery process. To prevent these kind of diseases, personal hygiene is of utmost importance. All the above mentioned diseases can be cured by taking the right dosages of antibiotics like Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporin’s, Metronidazole, Penicillin’s.



 


  • Track 4-1Cervicitis
  • Track 4-2Vulvovaginitis
  • Track 4-3Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases


Reproductive Endocrinology is a division in gynecology and Obstetrics which trains professionals in the field of reproductive medicine, hormonal dysfunction at the time of pregnancy as well as it deals with the problem of infertility among couples. Reproductive endocrinologists not only treat people affected by infertility but also treat patients with hormonal problems. Regulation and accurate functioning of the endocrine system is very important for the human body. Improper secretion of hormones leads to so many problems in pregnancy. Dysfunction of reproductive hormones is one of the common reasons for infertility among men and women. Hormonal changes not only affects the human body but also the human mind to a huge  extent. When pregnancy is taken into account a milieu of hormones constitutively affects the development of the baby during embyrogenesis and the mother, including human chorionic gonadotrophin and progesterone. Over activity or under activity of the hormonal glands in our body causes many diseases like Diabetes, Thyroid, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Hirsutism, Virilism and so on. The onset of pubertymenstrual cycle and menopause is all appropriate to the endocrine system functioning in our body.



 


Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery has been revealed to be appropriate among the doctors as another in extensive ranging surgical procedures. For the implementation of this kind of surgery, patient selection is very important. In case of simply invasive gynaecologic surgery there are diverse advantages  to it. The advantages being shorter period of stay at the hospital decreased analgesic requirements, faster recovery, lower intra-operative and post-operative issues and improved quality of life. The usage of laproscopy has been extensive for the management of benign gynaecologic conditions such as treatment and evaluation of endometriosis and benign adnexal masses. According to the American Society of Cancer 40,100 women were affected by uterine cancer in the year of 2008 and the number has increased by four-fold in the upcoming years. These surgeries reconstruct the vagina and the other female genitalia which have been destructed by chemotherapies and radiation. Reconstruction surgery after cancer treatment, McIndoe surgical Technique, Bowel vaginoplasty, Sex assignment surgery, Labiaplasty, Elective vaginoplasty, Hymen surgical procedures, Balloon vaginoplasty and Wilson Method  comes under minimally invasive gynaecologic surgery.

 

The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems  is known to be reproductive medicine. The aim of reproductive medicine is to improve and maintain the quality of reproductive health. The knowledge of reproductive medicine is based on reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, physiology and pathology. If the topic of reproductive medicine is taken into account it can be extra sub-divided into prenatal medicine and postnatal medicine. The issues addressed in reproductive medicine are sexual education, family planning, reproductive system diseases, birth control, infertility and sexual dysfunction. Ovulation, pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and other gynaecological problems are also assessed under reproductive medicine.


‘Care’ is word that is related to all stages of conceiving a child. Nine months of delivery can be divided into three phases and that is pre-partum care, Intra-partum care and postpartum care. In the primary stages that is the pre-partum the expecting mother for the various pathology and radiological assessments in order to keep a constant vigil on the development of the foetus in her womb. This makes it easy to find complications in pregnancylike preclampsia, eclampsia, miscarriages, bleeding etc. Immunization of the mother is of core importance as this protects the foetus from many deadly diseases. After conceiving and most important up to the delivery of the baby, the body  of the mother undergo changes and so does her psychological state of mind. Post partum care is primarily important to the newly born baby as well as the mother. Breastfeeding is of the most important key parameter postpartum care. Next comes in line protection of the new born from exterior infections and providing the baby with all the vaccinations at regular time intervals. Postpartum depression, peri-partum cardiomyopathy, urinary   incontinence, puerperal fever  are the other complications which come in after the delivery of the baby.

 

  • Track 8-1Breastfeeding
  • Track 8-2Postpartum depression
  • Track 8-3Miscarriage
  • Track 8-4Third trimester bleeding
  • Track 8-5Abortion
  • Track 8-6Breastfeeding

Breast disease  reason for  cysts, infections, lesions and lumps. Some of these diseases can be benign and   malignant. Mostly breast diseases and infections are Bacterial Mastitis, Fibrocystic Breast Disease, Chronic Sub-areolar Abscess, Tuberculosis of the breast, Actinomycosis of the breast and breast engorgement. The symptoms can be lumps in the breast region, inversion of the nipple, breast skin change and secretion from the breast. Nowadays many women are largely affected by breast cancer due to lifestyle pattern change. Major reasons for breast cancer include smoking, drinking alcohol, usage of oral contraceptive pills. Breast cancer can also be leads to uterine cancer and cervical cancer. Women from an early age should self examine themselves at regular intervals and have mammography regularly. Women above the age of 40 years and majorly menopausal women are at  a high  risk of suffering from breast cancer.

 


Obstetrics is that branch of medicine and surgery that deals with childbirth and midwifery. This field of science concentrates itself on all the aspects of childbirth and its aftercare. Obstetricians deal with prenatal and postnatalcare, foetal assessments, done during the entire span of pregnancy i.e. ultrasounds and TVS done during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. Obstetricians also look after the safety of the foetus during the ultrasounds. Foetal assessment includes obstetric ultrasonography to detect ectopic pregnancy, computerized tomography, fetal screening, foetal haematocrit, foetal karyotype, oxytocin challenge test. The incurrent diseases that occur during the gestational period like diabetes mellitus, systematic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, hypercoagulability in pregnancy are also treated by obstetricians. All the steps and processes during induction and labour like disturbance in cervical membranes, rupturing of the amniotic membranes, intravenous infusion of synthetic oxytocin, cervical insertion of a 30 ml Foley catheter are all done by the obstetricians, supported by the midwife. The various complications that come during pregnancy like foetal distress, shoulder dystocia, placental abruption are handled and taken care of by the obstetricians as well. So in the end we can conclude that ‘Obstetricians’ are the one-to-go person in case of any complications during the gestational period.



 


  • Track 10-1Prenatal care
  • Track 10-2Incurrent diseases
  • Track 10-3Foetal assessment


Health problems that occur in the mother’s body due to pregnancy are termed as complications in pregnancy. These complications can be now sub-divided into many sections. While some complications are common in every expecting mother, others can be particular to selective individuals only. According to the statistics it is found that 90% of the females in some or the other stages of pregnancy have experienced complications. While some complications are easy on the body like mild nausea and morning sickness but other complications like asthma, diabetes, thyroid diseases and hypertension needs to be taken care of under the quality guidance of gynaecologists and obstetrics. Some of the medical complications prove to be fatal to the foetus as well as the mother. Women suffering from other medical complications like HIV, urinary tract infections, ectopic pregnancies  etc. should go for immunization and medical assistance from time to time to keep the intensity of the complications under control.  Some of the medical complications like diabetes and hypertension are so chronic that they continue to persist in the body even after the delivery of the baby. Avoiding smoking, consumption of alcohol and maintaining a healthy lifestyle decreases the chances of having complications in pregnancy.

 


 


  • Track 11-1Asthma
  • Track 11-2Diabetes Mellitus
  • Track 11-3Thyroid diseases


Urogynaecology is a branch of gynaecology. Urogynaecologists are especially    trained medical professionals who treat clinical problems related to dysfunction of the pelvic floor and bladder. In some countries Urogynaecology is also called as Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery. Some of the disorders in pelvic floor includes urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and faecal incontinence. Other conditions where urogynaecology is practiced are Cystocele, Enterocele, Female Genital Prolapse, Lichen sclerosus, Overactive Bladder and Rectovaginal fistula. In modern times, Urogynaecologists are answerable for the care of women who encounter trauma to the perineum during childbirth. Some of the tests which are performed in urogynaecologic pathology including  Cystourethroscopy, urodynamic testing and Ultrasound. Urogynecologic problems are not life harming,  but they do have a major impact on the body of the individuals.



 


  • Track 12-1Urinary incontinence
  • Track 12-2Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Women’s health should be given highest care because they are the ones who bear the responsibility of carving a better tomorrow by giving birth to healthy individuals. In addition to this, in developed countries women mainly included in the country’s workforce to a large extent. Unprotected sex, unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases all add up to the factors of maternal mortality. In developed countries the life expectancy of women has improved but most women at an  older age experience diverse diseases like osteoporosis, arthritis, anaemia, cardiovascular diseases and etc. The sexual and reproductive health of the women is often ignored which leads to ovarian cancer, breast cancer, uterine cancer and cervical cancer. Women should pay attension   to their health rather than ignore the symptoms. Family planning is another such issue which is directly linked to women’s health. Before conceiving or planning for a baby, the health conditions of the mother and the financial condition of the family should be estimated.

Cervix is the lower part of the uterus which opens into the vagina. When the abnormal cells of the cervix grow out of control, cervical cancer occurs. Cervical cancer can be detected in the early stages by a test called ‘Pap test’. Mostly cervical cancer is caused by a virus known as Human Papillomavirus or HPV. There are many types of HPV. however  every kind of symptoms does not mean that cervical cancer.  Cervical cancers   are  mostly because of  smoking, usage of oral contraceptive pills and getting multiple pregnancies. The symptoms of cervical cancer include irregular bleeding from the vagina, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during sexual relations and abnormal vaginal discharge. Treatment that includes surgeries and chemotherapies has been proved to be successful in treating cervical cancer in the initial stages.